Struma (Goiter), is a disease that occurs when the thyroid gland seems abnormal. The thyroid gland is an organ located in the front part of our neck.
- 1 What Are The Types Of The Goiter?
- 2 How The Goiter Is Treated?
- 3 What Are The Symptoms Of The Goiter?
- 4 What Are The Side Effects Of The Goiter Surgery?
- 5 Does the Goiter Kill?
- 6 What Should Be Considered After Goiter Surgery?
- 7 What Are The Risks Of The Goiter Surgery?
- 8 To Whom Does Goiter Surgery Performed?
- 9 Nutrition After Goiter Surgery?
- 10 When Does The Voice Attenuation Pass After Goiter Surgery?
- 11 What Is The Required Time For Recovery After Goiter Surgery?
A thyroid gland is a place where thyroid hormones that play an active role in metabolism and the brain are secreted.
The operation of making the thyroid gland surgically that is applied to recover the structural and functional impairments of goiters is called goiter surgery.
Goiter surgery is applied as a result of the thyroid cancer and pressure of the thyroid gland on the other organs.
The radioactive iodine treatment that is known as an atom treatment after removing one par tor all of the thyroid gland, continues the treatment process.
Goiter surgery is used as the main treatment method for cancer patients. The patient breathes easier after the treatment.
What Are The Types Of The Goiter?
In goiter treatment, medical treatment or radioactive iodine treatment can be used. If a hormone deficiency is observed in the patient hormone drugs are used.
In contrast, radioactive iodine treatment is used to prevent the thyroid hormone depending on the increase in hormone. A part of the thyroid gland is removed in surgical treatments.
The hormone level, the existence of cancer and deglutition disorders depending on the respiration disorders of the patient determines in the goiter surgery stage.
How The Goiter Is Treated?
Diagnosis of goiter is made as a result of feeling the thyroid gland palpably during the physical examination. Treatment show changes according to the reason and volume of the goiter. When the patient is suitable for the conditions that need treatment, in other words, when the hormonal situation of the patient is different from the ordinary the surgery can be performed.
Starting a surgery when a toxic goiter is diagnosed in a hormonal situation pf the patient is not correct. In this case, the hormone level should be normalized through the necessary drug treatments firstly.
While this drug period takes a few weeks sometimes, it may take a few months sometimes which is rare.
The patient should not take nutrients 24 hours before the surgery in any way. The liquid foods are included in this.
Initially, the patient diagnosed with goiter is prepared for sleep through general anaesthesia. An operation is started by placing a cut to the front face of the neck.
All or a bit of gland is pulled out by connecting and cutting the veins in which the thyroid gland is placed. This is all about that the malignancy of the disease.
During the surgery, damage to a sound system is prevented.
What Are The Symptoms Of The Goiter?
The symptoms of the goiter show change from patient to patient. While it progresses by not showing any change in some patients, it shows itself with diseases such as oedema formation, aglutition, shortness of breath and dry cough in some patients.
Factors such as gaining weight, constant desire to sleep, skin dehydration, lethargy, weakness, costiveness and hair loss are the symptoms depending on little or too much hormone secretion of the thyroid gland.
In case of too much hormone secretion, disorders such as diarreha, nausea and angriness can be added.
When the situations mentioned above are experienced, it is necessary to apply internal medicine specialists.
What Are The Side Effects Of The Goiter Surgery?
There are 2 main side effects of the goiter surgery:
- Tightening of the vocal folds
- Decrease of the calcium level in blood
To prevent damaging of the vocal folds, it is provided to find the nerve fibre before the surgery and removing the goiter without touching the nerves.
It is a surgical method that requires experience. Parathyroid glands that regulate the calcium situations in the blood are preserved in areas like the vocal cord which are close to the goiter.
Impairment of these glands stops the functioning of glands after the surgery. In this case, it is a temporary feature as being in the vocal cords.
Does the Goiter Kill?
For secretion of thyroid hormones, thyroid glands are required. In the case of thyroid glands secretion of high amounts, a disease named graves disease occurs.
Thyroid hormones have significant functions on the body in arranging the metabolism, performing the energy production and regulating the body temperature.
Depending on these functions, the hormones of the graves disease impairs the functioning of the body with unbalanced secretion.
Even though this disease is seen at any age, it is more common under 40 years of age. In case of not taking precaution, it can cause fatal diseases by creating different diseases in the body.
What Should Be Considered After Goiter Surgery?
- The goiter patients recover themselves after a few hours of the surgical intervention.
- Similarly, the patient can talk and consume food after a few hours.
- Functions such as moving and walking can continue normally. Patients do not experience acute pain or exposure to any trauma.
- The patient can leave the hospital after a few days. There is a low chance of repeating of disease after a qualified and efficient treatment for every patient who experienced the surgical operation. It is worth noting that using the drug for a lifetime if the goiter gland is extracted completely.
- Painkillers and antibiotics should be started with doctor consultation.
- Touching of clothes to the wound should be prevented.
- Patients should come to the additional examinations on the days told by the doctor.
- It is required to care for the cut areas. Dressings and sutures should be done by the doctor.
- When the recovery is completed, the activities such as bathing and taking a shower should be provided.
- In case of any pain occurs in the neck, consuming smooth, sliced small foods and liquids would be fitting. While eating a meal, eating slowly and sometimes facilitating swallow through liquid drinks should be provided.
What Are The Risks Of The Goiter Surgery?
There are 2 main risks after the goiter surgery. These risks are ranked as following:
- The risk of impairment in nerves reaching the vocal cords,
- The impairment of parathyroid glands located close to thyroid glands.
The probability of seeing these risks is quite low and among 1% all around the world. Also, alterations about the voice are seen with a low probability again.
The reduction of calcium rate in the body, dysfunctioning of the parathyroid glands and systole are confronted as the secondary side risks.
The internal medicine specialist that is an expert in her/his field, is responsible for explaining these risks to the patient before the operation. The goiter scar becomes indistinct 6 months after the surgery generally.
In order to prevent even the smallest risk that the doctor should pay attention to, the surgeon should take care to end the surgery in order not to leave a trace.
Because although there is no scar after the goiter surgery, a little chance of scar is observed.
To Whom Does Goiter Surgery Performed?
In addition to the desire to be liked in external appearance, most of the goiter patients are mildly encountered by patients and physicians.
In the case of nondevelopment of the thyroid gland, it can damage the organs next to the thyroid glands, and it can prevent swallowing, talk and breathe.
Surgical procedures can be performed on patients of all ages who has goiter disease to prevent these kinds of damages.
- Goiter surgery is performed to
- Patients with a thyroid gland that is advanced and causes uncomfortable pressure on the neck
- Patients who are unresponsive to the current pharmaceutical interventions
- Patients who have a cancer risk
- Patients who have oedema around the neck.
Nutrition After Goiter Surgery?
After goiter surgery, juicy, soft, and blended foods can be consumed. The patient consumes food that has been shredded with a blender.
When Does The Voice Attenuation Pass After Goiter Surgery?
When thyroid gland surgery performed at the proximity of the vocal cords, in some cases, voice reduction may occur. In this case, the doctor must be informed about the situation.
In order not to damage the vocal cords, attention should be paid to avoid speaking unnecessarily, and not consume foods or beverages that are too cold or hot. This temporary hoarseness resolves within 1 month to 1 year after goiter surgery.
What Is The Required Time For Recovery After Goiter Surgery?
After the patient is discharged, the recovery period of goiter takes place within 1 week to 10 days.